Every major trend in history has begun with a breakout.
However, breakouts also lead to whipsaw trades so it’s sometimes better to join a trend on a subsequent pullback.
In the rest of this article I will demonstrate a very simple strategy that does just that.
This is a long only, daily strategy that shows good results on several stocks and ETFs.
Unlike other trend following strategies, we are able to get good results with a high win rate and short trade duration.
Pullback Strategy Rules
The idea of this strategy is to always trade short-term pullbacks within the longer term trend.
For the longer term trend we will use the 200-day moving average and for the the short-term trend we will use the 10-day moving average.
The full rules can be described as follows:
- Close > 200-Day MA
- AND Close < 10-Day MA
- Close > 10-Day MA
- OR By 10% Stop Loss
Additional Backtest Settings
- Starting Capital: $50,000
- Position Size: 100% (compounding allowed)
- Execution: All trades (including stops) entered on next day open
- Transaction costs: $0.005 per share
- Margin: None
So you can see this is a very simple strategy.
When a stock pulls back below its 10-day MA but trades above its 200-day MA we go long on the next open. We then sell after a close above the 10-day MA or by 10% stop loss.
All trades are placed on the next bar open following the trading signal.
Example Trade Setup
Following is a clear example of the trade setup we are looking for in SPY:
You can see that on the 17th May 2017, SPY closes well below the 10-day MA (blue) but above the 200-day MA (orange) indicating that the longer term trend is still intact.
We therefore go long on the next open with our full position size (green arrow).
We then see a rally and on the 22nd May, SPY closes back above the 10-day MA so we exit our position on the next day open (red arrow) for a profit of 1.79% before fees.
Now we know the rules to this pullback strategy we can backtest on historical data to see how the strategy has performed over time.
To do this I will first test the system on an in-sample period between 1/1995 to 1/2010 and then later on an out-of-sample period between 1/2010 – 1/2018.
I will be using the backtesting software Amibroker with historical data from Norgate.
This system was first tested on SPY daily data between 1/1995 to 1/2010 and produced the following statistics and equity curve:
- Net Profit: $115,572.08
- CAR: 8.31%
- MDD: -9.43%
- CAR/MDD: 0.88
- # Trades: 229
- Win Rate: 76.86%
- Avg Bars Held: 5.27
- Avg P/L Per Trade: 0.53%
- RAR: 32.11%
I then tested the system on out-of-sample data between 1/2010 to 1/2018:
- Net Profit: $31,524.72
- CAR: 6.31%
- MDD: -12.41%
- CAR/MDD: 0.51
- # Trades: 163
- Win Rate: 72.39%
- Avg Bars Held: 4.55
- Avg P/L Per Trade: 0.31%
- RAR: 21.85%
Full Sample Results
Following you can see an equity curve for the full sample period between 1/1995 / 1/2018 and a comparison against buy and hold:
You can see that we have achieved a strong risk-adjusted return of 28.25%. We also have a smooth equity curve with none of the -57% drawdown that was experienced in 2008 in SPY.
In order to reduce the impact of curve fitting we can also utilize the technique of walk-forward analysis and this pullback strategy is perfectly suited for this due to the easily adjustable parameters.
Following you will see the results for a walk-forward optimization in Amibroker.
The fast MA, slow MA and stop loss length have been optimized with in-sample steps of 5 years and OOS step of 3 months. Net Profit is used as the objective function:
Amibroker Code Snippet
Following is a code snipped that can be used in Amibroker:
MA1 = Optimize("M1",200,50,300,25);
MA2 = Optimize("M2",10,5,50,5);
ST1 = Optimize("S1",10,2,20,2);
LongTermTrendUp = C>MA(C,MA1);
Pullback = C<MA(C,MA2);
Exit = C>MA(C,MA2);
BUY = LongTermTrendUp AND Pullback;
SELL = Exit;
This is a very simple strategy for trading pullbacks within the longer term trend.
It shows good risk-adjusted returns on SPY in out-of-sample testing with low drawdown. I also found good results on other stocks and large ETFs suggesting this system could be applied to a wide range of markets.
To enhance returns further, this system might well be implemented with margin, for futures, or on a leveraged ETF like SPXL.
It may also be a good idea to introduce a short side.
One of the main advantages of this system in my view is that it can be easily optimized with a walk forward analysis and applied to other securities.
This is also a good, simple strategy to use if you have an opinion on the overall trend of the market.
For example, if your view is that stocks or bonds or gold are going up, use this strategy as an uncomplicated way to take chunks out of the trend!
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Simulation and charts in this article from Amibroker using data from Norgate Data.